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Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)
Emissions from Maryland
Utility Boilers



The Maryland Power Plant Research Program funded the preparation of this report to provide a preliminary assessment of potential emissions of hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions from utility boilers operating in Maryland. HCl is one of the 188 listed hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act, and is one of the listed extremely hazardous substances (EHS) regulated under the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) program of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

This report presents a review of potential HCl emissions resulting from coal and fuel oil combustion in utility boilers in Maryland, and compares these estimates with emissions of other acid gases (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides).

Table of Contents

Executive Summary Exec-1
1.0 Overview 1
    1.1 HCl Regulatory Initiatives 1
    1.2 PPRP Study of HCl Emissions from Maryland Sources 3
2.0 Chloride Levels in Fossil Fuels 5
    2.1 Coal 5
    2.2 Fuel Oils 8
3.0 Fate of Chloride in Fossil Fuel Combustion Units 10
    3.1 Coal Combustion 10
    3.2 Fuel Oil Combustion 11
4.0 Comparison of SO2, NOX and HCl Emissions from Maryland Utility Boilers 12
    4.1 Coal Combustion 12
    4.2 Fuel Oil Combustion 17
5.0 Comparison of HCl Emissions from Selected Combustion Sources 20
    5.1 Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Model Unit 24
    5.2 Sewage Sludge Incineration Model Unit 24
    5.3 Medical Waste Incineration Model Unit 25
    5.4 Utility Boilers Model Units 25
    5.5 Summary of Findings 26
6.0 Conclusions 29
7.0 References 31

Above is the foreword and table of contents. The entire report (5.2 Mb) is available on-line in pdf format (you will need the Adobe Acrobat reader to view it.)

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This page was updated on April 18, 2001.